Montenegro is located in Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Montenegro occupies approximately 13,812 km². It is bordered by Croatia (14 km long border) to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north (225 km), Serbia to the east (203 km), Albania to the south (172 km), and is separated from Italy by the Adriatic Sea. The coastline is 293.5 km long.
The endpoints of Montenegro are the following:
North: 43°32′N 18°58′E- the slopes of a mountain Kovač, near Moćevići, Pljevlja municipality
South: 41°55′N 19°22′E- at Ada Bojana, at the mouth of the river Bojana, Ulcinj municipality
East : 42°53′N 20°21′E- in the village of Jablanica, east of Rožaje
West: 42°29′N 18°26′E - the village Sutorina near Herceg Novi
Geographically, Montenegro is divided into three areas: the coastal, the central and the mountain region.
Coastal area is the southernmost, narrow area (1-10 km wide) extending along the Adriatic Sea, from Igalo in the west to the mouth of the river Bojana on the east. The coast is shredded into numerous bays and coves. The largest bay is the Bay of Kotor, which cuts into the land for about 20 kilometers. The coastal area is separated from the continental part of the country by the Dinaric Alps mountain chain, with some peaks reaching 1600 m above sea level. The average summer temperature ranges from 23.4⁰C to 25.6⁰C. The summers are long and dry, and winters are short and mild. The swimming season lasts from late April to the early October. From west to the east, the beaches gradually transform from the stony to the sandy ones.
Adriatic area covers a relatively small section of the Montenegrin coast from Cape Oštro to the mouth of the Bojana River, and towards the interior it extends to the valley of the river Bojana and Skadar Lake valley, and further to the valleys of Morača and Zeta rivers. On the limestone surface has developed a special type of ground - red soil , suitable for growing tobacco , vines , fruit trees and druguh culture . In addition , there is red soil and flysch soil. Adriatic area is divided into : the Bay of Kotor , Montenegro or Paštrovićko coast , the Bar field , Lake Basin and Zeta- plain.
The Bay of Kotor is made out of four smaller bays: Topla Bay, Tivat Bay, Risan Bay and Kotor Bay. Topla Bay and Tivat Bay are connected by Kumbor Strait, and Risan Bay and Tivat Bay are connected by Verige Strait. The Bay of Kotor is the southernmost fjord in Europe.
The coastal plan Paštrovići extends from the Boka Bay to Ulcinj. Mountains Rumija and Sutorman ascend over Paštrovići. The former island of Sveti Stefan is connected to the shore with sand-dune spit and turned into a peninsula and tourist city hotel. This part of the Adriatic area has sandy beaches in Petrovac, Miločer, Sveti Stefan, Ulcinj etc. The Long Beach in Ulcinj is the longest beach in Montenegro, (around 13 km).
The central area of the country consists of two parts. The first part is the mountain range that is literally looming over the coastline. Rare fertile parts of the land can be found in small karst plains and valleys in shape of crater. This part of the country holds record in Europe in terms of rainfall . In this area there is the ancient capital of Montenegro - Cetinje. Near Cetinje, there is one of four national parks – Mountain Lovćen.
The second part of the central geographical area is plain. There is basin of Skadar Lake (national park), the fertile valley of the river Zeta, Bjelopavlići plain and Nikšić field. These are the places with the highest population density in Montenegro. There are also two of the largest industrial centers - Podgorica and Nikšić. The summer is extremely hot, the temperature reaches 40⁰C. The average winter temperature usually doesn’t not go below -5⁰C. Fertile soil, abundant water, and the Mediterranean climate have made this the most fertile part of the country and its granary.
Skadar Lake is the largest cryptodepression on the Balkan Peninsula. Its greatest depth lies 38 m below the sea level, and the surface water of the lake is 6 m above the sea level. It is also the largest lake in Montenegro.
Mountain area occupies the northern part of the country. Here is sub-alpine climate, with cold, snowy winters and moderately warm summers. On these mountains there are rich pastures, forests and lakes. Rivers Piva, Tara, Morača and their tributaries have created a lot of beautiful canyons. The mountain region has two national parks: Biograd rainforest nearby mountain town of Kolašin and Durmitor with Tara Canyon (national park under the protection of UNESCO).
The mountains of Montenegro belong to one of the most inaccessible terrain in Europe. Their average altitude is higher than 2000 m. The highest peak in Montenegro is Zla Kolata of the mountain Prokletije, with an altitude of 2534 m. One of the most famous peaks of Montenegro is Bobotov Kuk on Mountain Durmitor , which is located at an altitude of 2523 m . The mountains of Montenegro represent the part of the Balkan Peninsula most altered by erosion during the last ice age.
Rivers of Montenegro belong to the Black Sea and the Adriatic basin. Tara is the longest river (141 km). The other rivers are Piva, Ćehotina, Zeta, Morača, Bojana etc. Tara flows through the canyon 1300 m deep. The only navigable river is Rijeka Crnojevića .
Lakes in the mountainous region of Montenegro are of glacial origin. The largest and best known of these are Plavsko Lake, Biogradsko Lake, Šasko Lake and Black Lake .