Montenegro is an ecological state. On September 20th 1991 then Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro adopted the Declaration on the Ecological State of Montenegro.
On the Ecological State of Montenegro
We, the members of the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro, are aware that due to the threats to the nature, the protection of the identity of the area in which we live and work became our immediate and timely obligation.
Being aware of our debt to the nature, which is the source of our health and inspiration of our freedom and culture, we are drawn to its protection in the name of our own survival and generations to come.
We agree that no difference between us is as great as the changes inflicted upon our natural environment. Regardless of our ethnic, religious, political and other beliefs and feelings, we know and accept that the dignity and sanctity of the human being are organically linked to the sanctity and purity of nature.
Man and nature within and around him are complete only in their depth, both in their essence and designation.
Therefore, the abuse of man has always been followed by the abuse of nature. In this sense, opting and fighting for human dignity, we are called to fight for the dignity of nature.
Adopting this Declaration, Montenegro is establishing the state policy towards nature and calls upon the wisdom of the people to prevent an environmental disaster that threatens us.
September 20th 1991. Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro
Such determination by the legislature is not surprising, given the natural and ecological potential of Montenegro, which must be preserved for future generations. Five areas in Montenegro hold the status of the national park: Lovćen mountain, Durmitor mountain, Biograd mountain, Skadar Lake and Prokletije mountain. Geologic and geographic characteristics of Montenegro, its flora and fauna, and nature in general, have been studied exclusively by foreigners for a long time, and researchers from neighboring countries in later period. The origins of this research are connected with the second decade of the 19th century, which coincides with the time when the studies started in other Balkan countries. Due to the diverse environment with very rich flora and fauna, Montenegro represented a challenge. Ecological treasury of Europe, Montenegro is rich in many plant and animal species. There are 40 lakes, 80% of the territory is covered in forest, natural pastures and meadows. In area which makes up only 0.14% of the territory of Europe, grows about 2833 species of plants, accounting for nearly a quarter of the European flora. The structure of the flora of this country always surprised both local and foreign biologists. Together with the botanists Pančić, Adamović, Kazanin, many famous botanists from other countries carried out their research in Montenegro. In 1929. British botanist Terrill had registered 270 new, mostly relict, species of plants. Only in Biograd National Park 86 types of trees grow, including Christmas trees, fir, beech, elm , oak, maple, ash, lime - typical representatives of various climate zones. Without taking into account the part of Perućica in Bosnia, Biogradsko Lake represents unique, pristine rainforest in Europe (in the natural forest of Biogradsko Lake up grow trees aged 500 - 1000 years). Even medieval lords of Montenegro understood and evaluated the uniqueness of these forests and took them under protection, thus creating the basis of ecological culture of the country. In Durmitor , Sinjajevina and Prokletije, rare alpine Edelweiss grow. In the village Piva, scientist O. Blau discovered the plant which he named the mountain cornflower. Botanist Pantoček, in the early twentieth century, in the mountains Komovi, discovered two new species of violet, one of which he named in honor of the king of Montenegro, Nicholas I.
Animal life Montenegro is also diverse and rich. Deer, doe, royal eagles, live in the region of Biogradsko Lake. Bears and wild boars inhabit the wetlands. In the high mountains , where shepherds still live semi-nomadic lifestyle and herd the cattle for the summer in the mountains, wolves and bears are often encountered. The most common bird that lives here is golden eagle, who lives on the mountain Prokletije. In Bukumirsko lake, located at an altitude of 1430 meters, the unusual vertebrate - water lizard lives. In Montenegro, 3/4 species of European avifauna live. In waters of Lake Skadar there is the largest colony of birds in Europe. There are also colonies of pelicans, cormorants, herons, black herons. Skadar lake is rich in fish - carp, bleak, trout live here.